There are two main reasons why muscles ache after exercise. The first is the action of lactic acid , which is released during exercise, and after exercise, it "burns" the muscles, which causes pain.
The second cause of muscle pain is the fact that during physical exercise muscle fibers receive microtraumas, microbreaks , due to which they subsequently grow. These tears regenerate after exercise, and this causes pain, soreness.
In general, muscle soreness after exercise is considered a sign that you are productive . But the pain should not be overly intense or last a week or more - this already indicates overtraining.
To reduce pain at the end of the workout, be sure to do stretching , and then take a hot shower, massage with a brush or washcloth.
It is also useful to drink a sports BCA supplement : amino acids prevent muscle breakdown, reduce post-workout pain.
If you work out well on simulators or with free weights, then the last repetitions in the exercises cause a burning sensation. Lactic acid is to blame for this, which accumulates in the muscles at the time of exercise, as a by-product of physiological processes. With each subsequent contraction of muscle fibers, the concentration of lactic acid increases, which increases the pain and burning sensation. Once the bar is thrown onto the platform, the blood quickly flushes the lactic acid out of the muscles. The burning sensation quickly passes and you can start the next approach as if nothing had happened.
The second type of pain usually occurs the next day after training and lactic acid has nothing to do with it. This pain is called delayed muscle pain. It is most often experienced by beginners or athletes who have changed their training plan. In general, those who have received unusual loads and, as a result, delayed muscle pain.
Why do they hurt?
During training, muscle micro tears occur and with serious exertion you cause yourself micro injuries. Most often, the body reacts to these breaks with pain.
Actually, the healing of muscle fibers after such injuries provides an increase in strength and volume. There is an active release of hormones and protein synthesis, which is a building material for muscles. As a result of such recovery processes, the muscles increase their weight and volume.
Why does it hurt not immediately, but the next day or even the second?
Microinflammation is the cause of local microinflammation, which appear after some that time, usually the next day. This means that the body is actively working on the damaged area. If there are many gaps, inflammation can peak on the second day after training. There is nothing wrong with this inflammation for your health.
Do you need to endure or fight this pain?
You can be patient, glad that you did a good job in the gym, but if the pain is unbearable, you you can do various procedures: sauna, warm shower, warm (but not hot) bath with sea salt, massage. It is also recommended to warm up and cool down and stretch after training. All of these actions are aimed at improving blood flow in the muscles, which contributes to their early recovery and pain relief.
Is it possible to exercise if the pain has not yet gone?
If the muscles have not recovered, but if you continue to train them, this can have negative consequences. If the body sustains new injuries without having time to recover, this can cause a state of overtraining. This means a lack of progress in terms of weight and volume, poor health and psychological state, well, in general, you will not just waste your time, but harm your health.
Pain is a sign that you have done a good job, that the muscles have received a significant load for them. But muscle growth, development of strength, endurance depends on recovery. If the muscles are not allowed to recover, there will be no progress.
Am I doing the right thing if there is no muscle painin general?
There is a motto in power sports: no pain - no growth. And this is exactly the case, if, of course, you want to increase the strength and volume of muscles. If there is no pain, then usually this means that either the load on your body was weak, too familiar. And if you just want to keep in shape, then you don't need to train to exhaustion.
Usually our muscles break down glucose with oxygen - this is aerobic glycolysis.
But when we overload them in the gym or just do something that requires a lot of physical activity, they are no longer able to break it down with oxygen consumption , anaerobic glycolysis occurs. Its by-product is lactic acid, known to many, which, when accumulating, causes painful sensations and sometimes cramps.
Common muscle pain occurs mainly due to structural damage to muscle fibers, microtrauma. Disease is a consequence of the body's feedback (its inflammatory response) to a person's performance of various exercises.