What physiological mechanisms lead to the formation of alcohol dependence, why does it take place in several stages and for so long? Where do hard drinking come from?

What physiological mechanisms lead to the formation of alcohol dependence, why does it take place in several stages and for so long? Where do hard drinking come from?

The Chemistry of Addiction

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answers (2)

Answer 1
January, 2021

Dopamine is yes, but this is just the tip of the iceberg. The main reason is that due to frequent libations, the biochemistry of the body breaks down, that is, ethyl alcohol begins to be absorbed in a different way, and this process is irreversible. That is, he drank himself to such changes - and that's it, then either you never drink, or you drink and you can't get drunk.

Here's an article about this: http://alku.ru/rekomend/alkogolik-v-seme .html

Its most important piece:

When a person drinks alcohol, it is absorbed and enters the bloodstream. The body perceives alcohol as a poison and tries to inactivate it - that is, to split it into harmless components. For this, two enzymes are produced - alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH). ADH is the first to react with alcohol. It splits the alcohol molecule into several parts. All parts are relatively harmless except for one - acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde is a very strong poison, hundreds of times more toxic than alcohol. When acetaldehyde appears in the body, a second enzyme, ACDH, enters the reaction. Its task is to break down poisonous acetaldehyde as quickly as possible. The faster this happens, the less the body will suffer. This should be normal.

What happens to the alcoholic's enzymatic system?

Alcoholism is a disease in which the synchronous action of ADH and ACDH is disrupted. The following happens. As a result of frequent alcohol consumption, the body “gets used” to produce large amounts of ADH. To the aid of ADH, other enzymatic systems, for example, the catalase system, are also connected to the process of primary alcohol breakdown. Because of this, drunk alcohol is exposed to the powerful effect of several enzymatic systems, which leads to its excessively rapid breakdown and the appearance in the body of a huge amount of poisonous acetaldehyde. At the same time, ACDH, which is intended to inactivate acetaldehyde, is produced in the same quantities. ACDH does not have time to break down acetaldehyde, it accumulates and poisons the body. The cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys suffer, but most importantly, the nervous system and the brain suffer.

Thus, alcoholism is a disease when the body produces too many enzymes that break down alcohol, and not vice versa, as this is considered to be people far from medicine.

Why do alcoholics have a craving for alcohol?

Microscopic doses of ethyl alcohol are involved in the vital activity of cells of any healthy organism. Each cell contains several ethanol molecules. This is normal. When an ordinary person (not an alcoholic) drinks alcohol, his enzyme system only affects the alcohol that was drunk. Intracellular ethanol remains out of the focus of the enzymatic system. The enzymatic system of the alcoholic begins to break down not only the drunk alcohol, but also intracellular ethanol. Without intracellular ethanol, vital processes in cells are disrupted, cells literally "suffocate". The alcoholic has an irresistible desire to drinkalcohol to compensate for intracellular ethanol deficiency.

Answer 2
January, 2021

Alcohol helps produce the happiness hormone dopamine. And each time there is more and more dopamine, which is why the brain begins to create more and more new receptors through which it transports this dopamine throughout the body. And when you stop drinking for a long time, the level of dopamine returns to normal and the extra receptors die off. It hurts. And this is breaking. And to avoid this, the brain sends a signal "dopamine is needed." From this and any addiction from falling in love to alcoholism

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