I'm unlikely to succeed in science, I will express my personal opinion.
We all act in our own interests, and we want others to act in our interests. Paradoxically, in the end, a good person is considered to be one who limits his egoistic behavior (after all, we all want such “good” ones around us!), And “hidden” egoists (those who are good by design) are especially bad ( difficult to trust such a person).
A good person is required to be good and “inside”.
My observation: very often conscientious people condemn others. Conscience is condemnation directed at oneself.
Why does a person need this? I think this is directly proportional to a person's tendency to condemnation - the more a person demands "correct" behavior, the more disgust he is from other people's actions, the more conscience (a person is capable of more self-condemnation).
The one who does not condemn others, does not condemn himself. As it was rightly noted, the bandits do not judge other bandits and themselves.
It is not difficult to give explanations and tell in detail about what conscience is from the point of view of the world-recognized scientific discovery of N.P. Bekhtereva and V. Grechin. In short, conscience is a "error detector" that subconsciously checks what has been done a person with an assessment of how permissible it is according to this person's PERSONAL MORAL CODE ... It is different for everyone in the content part, and many people are just trying to present their moral code closer to the ideal than it really is .. You heard about "duplicity", so this is about it. If an act violates this personal code, then the conscience triggers the alarm of a feeling of shame, as if to say - "You have violated your moral image! Be ashamed and try to fix it!" And such mechanisms of subconscious control of what they have done are in everyone and everyone, this is the biological mechanism of an "error detector" or "conscience." that "they have no conscience t ".. There are no shameless people at all, their conscience is biological. Their conscience does not work because their moral code does not prohibit deception, murder, robbery, etc.
From a scientific point of view, it is hardly possible to explain to you.
In the antediluvian time, people were glorious, that is, they were strong, smart, wise and most importantly, they realized that they were children of God. They felt quite good in this position. I interpret with our "golden" youth. But God wanted that with this knowledge and understanding about Him, His children would turn from bad to good, i.e. to God.
Of all the earth there was only Noah, who walked with God. And naturally, he and his family remained after the flood. Here the Lord gives His law in the heart of people: it is the conscience, it is the unwritten law.
Then people stopped listening to the voice of conscience and returned to normal.
La-ah-ah. - Well, they stopped listening to the heart, God set the written law (10 commandments). The people accepted God's constitution. Everything was going fine until they started sinning even harder.
Patience with God is endless, but we don't get better from this.
In short! God gave His Son Jesus Christ so that every believer would not perish, but have eternal life.
Conscience is one of the most important concepts of European culture. Until recently, it was believed that the conscience came with the advent of Christianity. But this word is also found among the Stoics.
In all European languages this word means the same: "someone who knows about something with me." From dr syneidesis. Someone is like a perfect witness in court, who knows everything about what you did, while he is incorruptible and honestly talks about what happened. Moreover, the nature of this “someone” is not clear. In other languages: con-science - joint knowledge, con-scienta, ge-wissen.
The Stoics identified three variants of conscience ^
Divine knowledge that is in me
Other people, community
My own knowledge, which I have already forgotten, but they still lead me from the inside
Medieval scholastics already had a discussion of "good" conscience and "bad" conscience. As long as you are a sinner, conscience is your punishment for a wrong lifestyle. And when you have repented, conscience becomes a guide, telling you where to go before you do something.
Heidegger: the voice of conscience is a person's testimony to be authentic, to be yourself. He talks about the call of conscience. Conscience takes a person out of everyday life. Guilt - guilt before oneself for the loss of oneself. H. speaks of a retrospectively reproachful conscience and a prospectively warning conscience.
Frankl - in addition to these two functions, conscience is also a source of meaning.
If we talk about conscience within the framework of the modern existential paradigm in psychology, then we can say the following.
Conscience is a sense of the hierarchy of values in any situation, the feeling of "correct"
The feeling that it is adequate
The organ of meaning (Frankl)
It is worth distinguishing and the super-ego
the super-ego, this is the same "bad" conscience
it is trained, this is the social self that has absorbed the conditions, rules, relations of the surrounding society.
Commandments, prohibitions, authorities, fear of punishment, all this refers to the Super-I
The Voice of the Super-I has the character of an internalized authority, directive, oppressive, threatening, degrading.
Own Conscience personal and authentic. She talks about the right thing in a particular situation, about "right in my own eyes." In Conscience, you are responsible for yourself to yourself.
Conscience indicates the direction that leads to the optimum of values
The voice of conscience has the character of a partner, a friend. The tone is calm, positive. Moreover, most often the voice of conscience sounds like its own.
Conscience needs to be learned. Rather, you need to learn to hear it and act in accordance with it.