Alcohol in any quantity, including wine, has a detrimental effect on the liver. And if at all there are liver diseases, which is asymptomatic and can be at any age, then wine, even in small quantities, will significantly aggravate the situation.
British Institute / Cancer Research Foundation, Cancer Research UK recommendations: “The more alcohol is consumed, the more the risk of developing cancer increases. But even a very small amount of alcohol, about 1 drink per day, can increase your risk of cancer. Experts concluded that there is no minimum safe alcohol consumption limit where the risk of cancer does not increase. The UK government recommends that men and women who drink regularly should not exceed 14 units of alcohol per week (1 unit is equivalent to 10 milliliters of ethyl alcohol). alcohol or 8 grams). But even this level of consumption can still increase the risk of cancer, the overall increase in risk is likely to be small. But it is important to understand that any amount of alcohol, to some extent, increases the risk of cancer. Some studies have shown that consuming small amounts of alcohol (usually less than 1 unit per day) may offer some health benefits, such as reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. But a review of the evidence to develop new guidelines found that these benefits only apply to a very small group of people - women over the age of 55 who drink less than 5 units per week. Therefore, the new recommendations do not recommend consuming any amount of alcohol to improve health. " www.cancerresearchuk.org www.cancerresearchuk.org www.cancerresearchuk.org
The World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF) recommendation is that the best way to prevent cancer is not to drink alcohol. If you decide to drink alcohol, then follow the national guidelines. In the UK, no more than 14 units per week (1 unit is equivalent to 10 ml of ethyl alcohol). www.wcrf-uk.org www.wcrf.org
American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) guidelines ): For cancer prevention, does not recommend drinking alcohol, or limiting alcohol consumption to 1 standard alcoholic beverage per day for women and 2 standard alcoholic drinks per day for men. In the US, a standard drink contains about 14 grams of alcohol. www.aicr.org
Alcohol unit: en.wikipedia.org
Standard drink: en.wikipedia.org
Calculation of alcohol units: www.nhs.uk
For example: a bottle of wine 750 ml 13.5% - contains 10 units of alcohol; 11% - 8.2 units.
Beer pint 568 ml 3.8% - 2.2 units; 5.2% - 3 units
European Anti-Cancer Code. 4th edition.
Alcohol, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) presented strong evidence of the carcinogenicity of alcohol, the tumor mechanisms of alcohol carcinogenesis, the relationship with oral cancer. cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectal cancer and breast cancer, even at low to moderatedoses of consumption. IARC concluded: “alcohol consumption is carcinogenic to humans; ethanol and acetaldehyde are carcinogens for humans and are included in the 1st group of carcinogens (carcinogenic for humans) according to the IARC classification ”. The risk of cancer increases with dose, and the more you drink, the higher your risk of cancer. The percentage of risk increases significantly if the daily dose exceeds 24 g of ethanol per day for men, and 12 g for women. On average, the risks increase: for cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus - 44% for men, 25% for women; liver cancer - 33% men, 18% women; colorectal cancer - 17% men, 4% women; mammary gland - 6.5%. The experts concluded that there is no lower limit for alcohol consumption where the risk of cancer does not increase. Taking all the evidence into account, the European Cancer Code recommends: "If you drink any type of alcohol, limit your intake. Avoiding alcohol is the best way to prevent cancer."
The effect of alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease.
Several studies show that consumption of low to moderate amounts of alcohol (10-20 g / day of ethanol) may be associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart diseases. There is evidence that low doses of alcohol can increase blood levels of high-density lipoproteins (antiatherogenic), decrease low-density lipoproteins (atherogenic), reduce platelet aggregation and clotting, and promote vasodilation. But increasing the dose can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia or heart attack, and coronary death. In view of the above, the task of determining the threshold for the daily dose of alcohol consumption is not easy, on the one hand, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, on the other, increasing the risk of certain types of cancer. Plus, it should be borne in mind that factors such as age, physiological state and nature of nutrition affect the formation of the threshold and can change it. Due to the fact that ethanol is included in the first group of carcinogenic substances, there is no scientific basis to support the use of ethanol as a therapeutic or prophylactic substance. It is obviously irrational to recommend the consumption of a substance for the possible prevention of one disease, knowing that in this case we are contributing to many others. Also, it cannot be justified to recommend the use of toxic carcinogenic substances from an ethical point of view. The logical and correct action on the part of medical professionals should not be to stimulate the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but to explain to patients that alcohol, even in low doses, can contribute to the occurrence of cancer. A physically active lifestyle and a healthy diet are more effective in preventing coronary artery disease than low alcohol consumption. As a reduction in mortality from coronary heart diseasea, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended lifestyle changes: a balanced diet, reduced salt intake, exercise and weight loss.
Positive association between alcohol consumption beverages and breast cancer risk are supported in over 100 epidemiological studies. A review of evidence suggests that 1 drink per day (10g of alcohol) can increase the risk of breast cancer after menopause by 8% and in premenopausal women by 9%. The risk increases the more a woman drinks, some studies have shown that every additional 10g of alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer by about 7 to 12%. The available data also show that the risk is increased even with low alcohol consumption (10g ethanol per day, or 3 to 6 glasses of wine per week).
Cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx and esophagus.
Alcohol increases the risk of cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The more alcohol is consumed, the higher the risk. People who drank 4 or more drinks (about 10 g of alcohol) per day had a 5 times higher risk of oral cancer compared to people who do not drink or drink only occasionally. The review also found that even few drinkers, no more than one drink per day, had a 20 to 44% higher risk. The combined effects of alcohol and tobacco smoking result in a super-multiplier synergistic effect that increases the risk of neoplasm by 14 times among heavy smokers and heavy drinkers (4 drinks or more per day). There is evidence that the risk of developing cancer decreases over time after stopping alcohol consumption. A recent meta-analysis reports an average 2% decrease in risk of pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer per year after stopping alcohol consumption.
Liver and colorectal cancer.
Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer. Heavy drinking can lead to liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis increases the risk of liver cancer. Alcohol significantly increases the risk of liver cancer in people with hepatitis B and C. People with these infections should avoid drinking alcohol, as even small amounts can worsen liver damage. An 18 - 33% increase in the risk of liver cancer in general, and a 30 - 40% increase in the risk when consuming more than 40 g of ethanol per day.
The risk for colorectal cancer when consuming 1 drink per day (10 g of ethanol) is about 11%, and 40% for more than 4 - 5 drinks per day. The risk is even higher for drinkers who have a family history of colon cancer. In general, the risk for colon cancer is slightly higher than for rectal cancer with one drink per day, and the risk is greater in men than in women.
In Europe, alcohol is the third leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality after tobacco and high blood pressure. There is strong evidence that people can reduce their cancer risk by limitingconsumption of alcoholic beverages. On average, reducing alcohol consumption to one or fewer alcoholic beverages per day can reduce the risk of liver cancer by 21%, the risk of colorectal cancer by 31%, and the risk of breast cancer by 30%. Thus, any reduction in alcohol consumption has a beneficial effect on reducing the risk of cancer.
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None. On the contrary, a small amount of alcohol (about 40 ml in terms of pure alcohol, which, by the way, is a little more than one glass of wine) is useful. Yes, not for everyone, if you have heart or stomach problems, then it is better not to drink. Nevertheless, it has historically happened: overripe fruits, due to the sugar content in them, begin to ferment. And the smell of alcohol has long been an indicator that they need to be eaten faster.
As for wine specifically, alcohol is still a preservative that preserves the beneficial properties of grapes.