To date, there is no single method that would allow to identify cancer at an earlier stage.
All people are recommended once a year, and if there are risk factors, more often, to undergo a set of examinations, formed depending on age, gender and place of residence.
These surveys are called check-ups.
A colleague reveals the topic in more detail: https://thequestion.ru/questions/206589/zachem-nuzhny-chekapy
There are two options here: either search for each specific type of cancer (and even then the list will not be complete), or something with low specificity and not always sufficient sensitivity