Good afternoon. This means that hypertension has an initial stage and there is no damage to target organs and cardiovascular accidents. But the likelihood of acute cardiac diseases in the next 10 years is very high. It is usually recommended to give up smoking, pay attention to nutrition and excess weight, regular aerobic exercise, control of blood pressure, blood sugar and lipid profile. Additional examination in an individual mode.
The diagnosis of any chronic disease always means one thing: irreversible breakdown of the usual way of life.
Arterial hypertension is divided into several degrees of severity and stages, and separately by degrees of risk.
Degree of severity is a conventional name for the interval of blood pressure, which is well-established for the patient. The degrees are numbered with Arabic numerals (1-3).
Normal blood pressure is systolic (SBP) 120–130 and diastolic (DBP) 80–85. Optimal blood pressure is ~ 105–120 / ~ 70– 80 (the lower boundaries are blurred); - within these limits, the risk of developing cardiovascular pathology in the absence of other risk factors (maintaining a healthy lifestyle) is practically absent.
Low blood pressure - 90-105 / 60– 70; Increased blood pressure - 130-140 / 85-90; - within these limits there is a risk of transition to hypo / hypertension, respectively.
Below low (below 90/60) - already hypotension, within which there are no gradations. Above elevated (above 140/90) - already hypertension, and it has gradations: 1st degree of severity: 140-160 / 90-100; 2nd severity: 160-180 / 100-110; 3rd degree of severity: 180/110 and above; In addition, isolated systolic hypertension (SBP only): systolic pressure above 140, while diastolic - below 90.
Arterial hypertension of the 1st degree is in very many people and, if earlier it was believed that it already requires drug treatment, it is now believed that starting drug treatment at this stage is early and even harmful, as it cuts off the path to retreat.
Stage is a conventional name for another picture of the course of the disease, in addition to the actual pressure, which includes changes in internal organs. Stages are numbered in Roman numerals.
Stage I - no changes in internal organs, Stage II - lesions of one or more target organs of varying severity, Stage III - dysfunction of one or more target organs .
Target organs include blood vessels, heart, brain, retina and kidneys. So, if stage II may include, perhaps, atherosclerotic vascular plaques, vasoconstriction of the retina and a slight increase in protein in the urine and creatinine in the blood, then stage III may already include the addition of conditions such as angina pectoris, arrhythmias, heart attack, stroke, acute renal insufficiency, gangrene of the extremities, intestinal ischemia ...
With the degrees of risk, the situation is more complicated, since they rely not on one indicator - blood pressure - but on a whole set. Degree of risk is a conditional name for the lifestyle that the patient leads, and which can contribute to the worsening of the course of the disease. The degree of risk, in contrast to the severity and stages, is 4.
1st degree of risk - the risk is low: the likelihood of complications (increased severity and stage) is less than 15% in the next 10 years, that is most likely the worstwhom the patient will not become while maintaining a healthy lifestyle; 2nd degree of risk - the risk is medium: the likelihood of complications is 15-20% in the next 10 years; 3rd degree of risk - the risk is high: the probability is 20 –30% in the next 10 years; 4th degree of risk - the risk is critical: the probability is more than 30% in the next 10 years, that is, for such a patient, the probability of irreversible deterioration is extremely high, while maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle.
Please note that, although at grade 1 severity , as a rule, drug therapy is not recommended, with grade 4 risk its use becomes more than justified.
What can be done, besides starting taking antihypertensive drugs strictly according to the doctor's prescription, to alleviate the risk :