What are human worms?

What are human worms?


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answers (3)

Answer 1
January, 2021

How do helminths enter the body ??

Most often, infection occurs through the oral cavity, when the eggs of the worms penetrate with food or dirty objects and hands. Recently, there has been a fashion for various exotic dishes, for example sushi, in this case the fish remains raw, and if the cook violates the cooking technology, the parasite becomes infected instantly. Also, some worms can penetrate the skin or through blood transfusion, which is extremely dangerous.

But the main source of infection is still the oral cavity, into which the eggs or larvae of the worms fall. Then they are activated in gastric juice, for example, their protective layer dissolves and parasites enter the intestine, where some remain, and some begin to gnaw through the intestinal walls and migrate to other organs through the bloodstream.

Helminths are especially dangerous for children, as how they have weak immunity and not so strong protection against external infections. In addition, children are always exploring the world and are curious, they can play with a stray animal without hesitation, or pick up something from the ground and taste it.

According to parasitologists, often eggs of worms are in large quantities are located in open sandpits in the courtyards of our houses, this is just a breeding ground for parasites that instantly find new hosts.

The main symptoms of the presence of helminths

Helminths can have two stages of development - chronic and acute. In the first case, the patient does not even suspect that dangerous helminths are parasitizing in his body. Unfortunately, the acute stage of development always remains invisible, many are sure that they have eaten something stale and they have a simple upset stomach and intestines.

Acute stage of development of helminthiasis

At this stage, worms only penetrated into the intestines and they need time to develop to sexually mature individuals. Depending on the number of larvae and the type of worms, the acute stage of development takes from 2 to 10 weeks.

Symptoms of the acute stage:

• allergic reactions, mainly on the skin. Very often, rashes may appear on the body, in some cases in the form of acne and eczema, but usually these are minor redness and severe itching. If a person is infected with pinworms, then the itching will be localized near the anus;

• swelling of the face appears, especially noticeable on the eyes, the eyelids become heavier;

• lymph nodes increase due to inflammation;

• a cough appears, it can be either dry or with phlegm, attacks of suffocation are not uncommon. Depending on the type of worms, the patient's saliva may contain eggs of parasites;

• pain in muscles and joints, in the future development of arthritis is possible;

• some internal organs may begin to increase, to these include the spleen, liver and gallbladder;

• A large number of antibodies (eosinophils) appear in the blood, which are trying to fight unwanted guests in the body. By the way, it is antibodies that lead to an allergic reaction.m;

• vomiting and fever, as a reaction to extraneous parasites.

Chronic stage of development of helminthiasis

The chronic stage occurs immediately after the end of the acute. This period of illness can last from several weeks to 20-30 years, and sometimes more, until the parasites bring the patient to death.

Often, the chronic stage is invisible and the symptoms are very confused, the feeling that a person has just some organ hurts, by the way its treatment by doctors is ineffectual. But if there are a lot of parasites and they also damage vital organs, you can find out about their presence when you contact the clinic.

Symptoms of the chronic stage:

• metabolism is disturbed;

• immunity is inhibited;

• inflammatory processes occur.

The consequences of worms for humans

Weight loss

The patient is losing weight , and quite quickly, despite good nutrition. This is a very strange sign for a person, so you need to immediately check for the presence of helminths. Parasites always suck out all the most useful from food and the body, respectively, the patient receives only residues, which are sometimes also diluted with toxic substances - parasite waste. Everyone knows that during illness, appetite disappears, but some large worms, on the contrary, "require" from the body of increased nutrition, but this still does not affect weight gain.

Skin problems

Skin color becomes pale, sometimes even bluish, as the body lacks nutrients. As a result, dryness appears, sometimes cracks and thinness of the skin, especially noticeable on the hands, feet and face.

Disruption of the digestive tract

The function of the gastrointestinal tract completely changes if previously, the problems were short-term, then with the development of worms, severe constipation and diarrhea occur. Moreover, they can alternately change every other day, which clearly indicates not a simple poisoning.

Simultaneously with the disruption of the digestive tract, there is:

• nausea;

• bloating abdomen;

• pain in the right hypochondrium or in the intestine.

With some intestinal worms, which can grow up to several meters, intestinal obstruction occurs, in this case the patient seeks help from doctors and only here is the presence of a huge parasite found.

Disruption of the central nervous system

The nervous system begins to get irritated, and causeless disorders appear. Often a person becomes irritable and quick-tempered. As practice has shown, many people with a high level of aggressiveness are tormented by helminthic invasion. Parasites release a large amount of toxins into the bloodstream, which strongly affects the nervous system. In addition to irritability, fears and anxiety, headaches occur, at night the patient cannot sleep, or often wakes up from nightmares.

Fatigue and a stable loss of strength

Chronic fatigue is also often a symptom of development parasites. So toSince a person constantly lacks vitamins and nutrients, he quickly gets tired, but he also cannot fully rest due to sleep disorders. As a result, the patient becomes distracted, forgets a lot, does not want to work and only wants to sleep or lie down and do nothing.

Weakened immunity

Immunity weakens due to low intake of nutrients, they can join secondary infections. Often, a person with worms easily picks up a cold or other infectious diseases, which, in theory, are not dangerous for people with strong immunity.

Damage to internal organs

Since worms parasitize not only in the intestines, they can affect the heart, lungs, liver, eyes, brain and other vital organs. If untreated and prolonged helminthic invasion, this can lead to severe pain and necrosis, and subsequently to death. Often, such advanced cases are resolved by surgery, but the person in this case is already disabled.

I really liked the new generation antiparasitic agent, with the help of which I and my whole family managed to get rid of many larvae and parasites. Its pros:

  1. Destroys all known types of parasites.

  2. Helps cleanse organs and tissues, neutralizes intoxication due to parasitic infection.

  3. Regenerates mucous membranes, cleanses blood, lymph, intercellular fluids.

  4. Normalizes the redox balance, which threatens the formation of cancer cells.

  5. Increases the immune status and body resistance.

  6. Restores and normalizes the functions of depressed organs, puts in order the hormonal background.

  7. Heals mechanical damage resulting from the vital activity of worms.

  8. Eliminates ulcers, pains, smooth muscle spasms.

If interested, here's a link to the article.

Answer 2
January, 2021

Worms or helminths is a generalized name for a group of parasites that can infect most living things on the planet, as well as humans. The diseases they cause are called helminthiasis. Worms are widespread throughout the world. According to WHO research, at the moment about 4 billion people are infected, and, regardless of the economic status of countries and the age of the sick. In Europe, according to statistics, human worms, the symptoms of which are described below, are found in every third analysis. Of course, among those infected with helminthiases there are much more children than adults.

In total, there are 2 types and 3 classes of helminths in nature - this is the Roundworm type, which includes the class of Roundworms (Nematodes) proper, and the Flatworm type ... The latter type includes 2 classes - Flukes (Trematodes) and Tapeworms (Cestodes). According to statistics, most people on the globe are infected with worms from the nematode class, which includes roundworm, pinworm. Flatworms usually cause disease in humans in the places where they themselves live.

All helminthiases have a common similarity - the disease develops slowly, has a chronic course, often with nonspecific symptoms. But, at the same time, they differ in the ways and mechanism of infection, development cycle, location in the human body. Therefore, it is worth considering each class of helminths separately.

Class roundworms (nematodes)

Nematodes rank first in the prevalence of helminths in nature. They cause such common diseases in humans as:

• ascariasis;

• trichinosis;

• enterobiasis;

• strongyloidosis ;

• ankylostomiasis;

• trichocephalosis.

Their representatives have a spindle-shaped non-segmented body. And these worms are called round because in cross-section their body is round. Outside, the worms are covered with a protective sheath, or cuticle, which is resistant to many environmental factors and to the action of the human body. This is probably why roundworms are widespread everywhere and can survive in various conditions.

The life cycle of nematodes is quite simple. It contains only an adult, an egg and a larva, which gradually grows in the process of molting. Eggs are always found in the external environment (soil or water). They are protected from external factors by a shell, which can consist of one or more layers. An immature larva is located inside the egg. When eggs enter the human small intestine, the membrane is destroyed by enzymes and the larva emerges from them. Gradually, in the process of molting, it grows into a sexually mature worm, which multiplies in the human body and forms eggs. The nematode larva and the adult parasitize humans in the small and large intestines.

The developmental cycle of Trichinella is different. There are no eggs in this case. And the larva damages not only the digestive tract, but also the mouse

The source of infection when infected with roundworms is most often a sick person or carrier. The only exception applies to trichinosis, since in this case, helminthiasis is a source of infection in domestic or wild animals. The transmission mechanism is predominantly fecal-oral. The routes of infection are different: with trichinosis, a person becomes infected with a worm while eating poorly cooked and uncooked meat of wild or domestic animals, in other cases - if basic hygiene rules are not followed (dirty unwashed hands and unkempt nails, unboiled water, unwashed vegetables and fruits).

Class tapeworms (cestodes)

The most famous representatives of cestodes include pork, dwarf and bovine tapeworm, broad tapeworm, echinococcus. It is not for nothing that these parasites were called tapeworms, since their body is flat and looks like a ribbon. The length varies from a couple of millimeters to 10-15 meters. The body consists of many segments that provide a high degree of fertility. At the head end there is a head (scolex) with suction cups and hooks, which helps the worm to firmly fix in the human body. Interestingly, cestodes do not have a digestive system. All nutrients are absorbed by the whole body through a special epithelium (tegument). In addition, the surface of the body is wrinkled, which increases the area of ​​absorption.

The development cycle of tapeworms is quite complex and consists of 4 stages. All cestodes have 2 hosts - intermediate and final. The final owner is most often a person and some wild and domestic animals (dogs, cats, foxes, wolves, pigs). Intermediate hosts are cattle, some species of fish (perch, pike), molluscs, insects.

The first stage is the development and reproduction of an adult helminth in the human (or animal) body. The resulting eggs are released into the environment with feces. There, in the second stage, larvae mature in water or soil under the influence of favorable conditions. The third stage involves the ingestion of eggs by the intermediate host. In his body, the larva turns into a finna (a small bubble containing liquid and heads with suction cups). Most often, Finns are found in the muscles of animals. In the fourth stage, the Finns with their heads enter the body of the final host. The bladder membrane collapses, the head with its suckers and hooks attaches to the intestinal mucosa, and an adult worm gradually grows out of it.

The source of infection is a sick person who, with feces, secretes the eggs of the worms into the external environment. The transmission mechanism is fecal-oral. A person can become infected with helminths when eating raw fish and seafood, poorly cooked meat of cattle and small ruminants (cows, pigs), through unwashed fruits and vegetables, dirty hands, especially after contact with domestic and wild animals.

Fluke class (trematodes)

This class of helminths includes feline fluke, schistosomea, hepatic fluke, etc. Their body is lanceolate or leaf-shaped. The length is small compared to helminths of other classes - up to 6-8 cm. On the body of flukes there are 2 suckers: one head and one abdominal.

In the life cycle of trematodes, the final and intermediate hosts are always present. The final is most often a person, and the intermediate is various mollusks. Some representatives of flukes may have an additional intermediate host (fish, crustaceans, worms).

Helminth goes through several stages of development. An adult worm is found in the human intestine and lays eggs. Eggs with feces enter the external environment. For the next stage to begin, the egg needs to be in the water. The egg is covered with a protective shell and at one end of the pole has a small cover through which the larva (miracidium) emerges later. The larva, with the help of many cilia, moves freely in the water and is swallowed by the mollusk.

Asexual reproduction takes place inside and the next form of the parasite is formed - redia. In the same way, redia multiplies in the body of a mollusk and produces a cercarium. This form is already more like an adult, because it has suckers, a tail with spines, an underdeveloped reproductive system. The cercarium leaves the body of its owner and again finds itself in the water.

Further, it has 2 options, depending on the fluke: either it again falls into the second intermediate host and there it becomes a metacercarium (an immobile and inactive form), or turns into a similar cyst in the external environment. In any case, a metacercarium enters the body of the final host, from which a helminth capable of sexual reproduction is formed.

The source of the invasion is an infected person. The transmission mechanism is fecal-oral. Fluke infection can occur when a person eats uncooked fish, shellfish, crabs, eating various seaweed and other raw plants, vegetables from the garden that have been watered with contaminated water.

Worms in humans are symptoms of infection

In the clinical picture of all helminthiasis, there are 2 stages - acute and chronic. The acute stage occurs after infestation by the parasite and usually lasts from a few days to 3 weeks. During this period, the human body begins to react to the pathogen that has invaded it, which is manifested by the activation of immunity to the helminth antigens. Therefore, in the acute stage, nonspecific symptoms of the disease prevail, such as an acute allergic reaction (skin rash and itching of varying intensity), pain in joints, muscles, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and lymph nodes. In persons with massive invasion, when there is a heavy load on the immune system and a huge amount of antibodies are produced, immune complexes can damage the body's own tissues with the development of myocarditis, hepatitis, pneumonia.

Clinical symptoms in the chronic stage largely depend on the type of helminth, on their number and locationlization in the human body. There are common symptoms of helminthiasis associated with their vital activity:

  1. Damage to the alimentary canal

All helminths have a mechanical damaging effect, leading to inflammatory-dystrophic changes in various organs primarily in the digestive system. Most worms parasitize in the small or large intestine, attaching to its mucous membrane. Hence, the following symptoms are characteristic:

• abdominal pain of varying intensity and any localization;

• periodic nausea, vomiting;

• rumbling in the abdomen and bloating;

• chronic constipation or diarrhea.

A large number of worms can cause compression or obstruction of the organ, which often leads to the development of acute emergencies (acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, acute intestinal obstruction).

  1. Violation of general condition

    Helminths feed on the same substances that a person receives with food. That is, a kind of competition for the necessary nutrients is noted between the parasite and the human body. And the more worms, the less a person gets them, which affects the general health. This is manifested by a gradual and insignificant decrease in body weight, although the appetite, on the contrary, increases.

    Lack of fat-soluble vitamins affects the condition of the skin, skeletal system, vision, blood coagulation system. Impaired absorption and absorption by worms of B vitamins and trace elements leads to damage to the nervous and hematopoietic systems. Some helminths additionally feed on blood cells, mainly erythrocytes. In such a complex, a person may develop iron deficiency or pernicious anemia. Unpleasant symptoms from the nervous system are often noted. For example, insomnia, headaches, impaired concentration and memory, decreased ability to work, irritability, neuroses.

  2. Suppression of the immune system

    A lack of nutrients and the constant production of antibodies against worms can lead to a decrease in immunity. As a result, a secondary bacterial infection joins the person, he can often get sick with viral and fungal diseases, which are more severe than usual.

  3. Chronic allergic reaction

    The products of the metabolism of helminths have a toxic-allergic effect on the human body. Usually, allergic symptoms appear on the skin in the form of redness, rash, itching. In people with a predisposition to atopy, parasites can also cause allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and aggravate the course of bronchial asthma.

    Each helminth has its own specific effect on the human body:

• Ascaris

Symptoms in ascariasis depend on the phase of development of the parasite. In the migration phase, when the helminth spreads throughout the body, the characteristic for roundworm is the defeat of the pulmonary system. It manifestsXia in the form of a dry, unproductive cough, sometimes with hemoptysis, shortness of breath. Damage to the lungs by ascariasis gives a specific picture on the roentgenogram: multiple small "volatile" infiltrates are formed in the lungs, which change their localization in the lungs.

• Pinworm

With enterobiasis, a typical symptom is itching in the perianal an area that bothers you more at night. This is due to the exit of the female pinworm from the rectum and the laying of eggs around the anus. Depending on the number of helminths in the body, itching can be insignificant, periodic, or, conversely, constant, debilitating. Often, due to such itching, the general well-being of a person worsens: irritability, sleep disturbances, and working capacity appear.

• Trichinella

Trichinella has its own special manifestations, which depend on the severity of the disease. A person is worried about an increase in temperature to subfebrile or febrile numbers, which can persist for up to 2 weeks. From the first day, the appearance of edema is noted, first on the face and eyelids, and in severe cases - with spread to the whole body. The second characteristic symptom of trichinosis is muscle pain. In intensity, it can be moderate to severe, painful. The more severe the disease progresses, the more pronounced the symptoms of damage to the digestive tract.

• Pork tapeworm

Depending on the stage that has entered the human body, this helminth causes 2 diseases at once - teniasis and cysticercosis. Teniosis is characterized by all the general symptoms. And the clinic for cysticercosis is diverse. Most often, the larva is brought into the brain, causing severe paroxysmal headache, epileptic seizures, mental disorders (delirium, hallucinations), paresis and paralysis, and hypertensive syndrome. If the larva gets into the eye, then uveitis, conjunctivitis, visual impairment up to blindness are noted.

• Feline fluke and liver fluke

Feline fluke causes opisthorchiasis, and hepatic fluke causes fascioliasis. Both helminths affect the hepatobiliary system. At the same time, complaints of dull pain and heaviness in the right hypochondrium, staining of the sclera and skin in yellow are characteristic. There is an increase in the liver, its lower edge can be compacted.

• Schistosoma

Various types of schistosomes live in countries with hot and humid climates. One of them - Schistosoma haematobium - causes damage to the urinary system. The patient is worried about pain in the bladder area, urinary excretion of blood, mainly at the end of urination.

I really liked the new generation antiparasitic agent, with the help of which I and my whole family managed to get rid of many larvae and parasites. Its pros:

  1. Destroys all known types of parasites.

  2. Helps cleanse organs and tissues, neutralizes intoxication due to parasitic infection.

  3. Regenerates mucous membranes, cleanses blood, lymph, intercellularclear liquids.

  4. Normalizes the redox balance, which threatens the formation of cancer cells.

  5. Increases the immune status and body resistance.

  6. Restores and normalizes the functions of depressed organs, puts in order the hormonal background.

  7. Heals mechanical damage resulting from the vital activity of worms.

  8. Eliminates ulcers, pains, smooth muscle spasms.

If interested, here's a link to the article.

Answer 3
January, 2021

Worms are worms. A whole list of species and genera is parasitic in humans. They can be anywhere from the brain to skin and muscles. Infection occurs through food, orally (dirty hands, animal hair), through the skin (especially important for exotic countries). Also, a person can be used by them as a transit point on the way to the final owner.

In detail: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helminths

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