It depends on what kind of influence we are talking about. Asphalted areas are warming up more strongly and thus change the microclimatic parameters of the environment. In the cold period of the year, such territories freeze more strongly, which has a detrimental effect on the root system of plants. Asphalt itself has a number of substances that adversely affect human health, but only if you are in an enclosed space. In general, you can write a lot about this, but it is necessary to concretize what kind of influence we are talking about.
Certainly. That is why they put up fences and signs prohibiting eating asphalt.
It's also very dangerous to touch the asphalt at high speeds. Many people fell victim to the asphalt when they wanted to fly to the balcony of someone else's house like a flying squirrel.