In the Russian Federation, the concept of "psychotherapist" is normative, i.e. is defined and used in various regulatory legal acts.
Thus, at the moment, based on the orders of the Ministry of Health, training standards of the Ministry of Education, etc., it is agreed that a psychotherapist is a medical specialty.
You can. A psychotherapist is far from just a doctor, as Alexander Sterligov mistakenly believes. A psychotherapist is also a psychoanalyst, gestaltist, cognitive-behavioral therapist, art therapist. The only problem is that modern Russian legislation does not know about the existence of non-medical methods of psychotherapy (which have long been recognized in the West, for example, by the European Association for Psychotherapy), and therefore only doctors have the formal right to be called a psychotherapist in Russia. Therefore, after years of training in the main areas of psychotherapy and supervised practice, therapists are forced to call themselves "consultant psychologists." This, of course, does not prevent them from working as psychotherapists.
No, you can't. A psychotherapist is a physician who has specialized first in psychiatry and then in psychotherapy. With a psychologist's diploma after special courses, you can become a medical psychologist, but this is a completely different matter.
And for Anna Andreeva, I explain that in Russia there is an order of the Ministry of Health "on psychotherapeutic assistance", which states that a psychotherapist is without medical education cannot work: consultant.ru. In other countries, things may be different.