When a self-improving artificial intelligence is created, it will be something closest to what we now call God. It is difficult to say how much this God will be similar to what is described in the historical religious books, and where everything will be like a living being, this is the singularity ... we'll see soon.
Soul and mind are different things.
Souls are created for spiritual growth, which is mainly designed to acquire it (growth) through life choices (actions) based on feelings, and not on reason.
Even if an artificial mind is created, scientists will definitely not be able to endow it with feelings.
Therefore, the answer to the question is NO! This will not be proof of the error of religious beliefs about the soul.
If you mean a computer-based artificial intelligence, then creating it will confirm that:
Intelligence in the form of software and data can be transferred to other hardware. If we put the old iron in a coffin, then we have an afterlife.
Reason in the form of software and data may not depend on the material medium. That is, in a sense, the mind is not very attached to matter.
Religion in general from an evolutionary point of view is very rational, you just need to realize that evolution has gone from the genetic to the cultural level, and religion is a replacement for overcome instincts and the basis of culture.
Accordingly, the soul is human culture (and it is slightly immaterial). The afterlife is children, students and followers.
I'll make a reservation right away that the following is, as they say, IMHO. I do not pretend to be the ultimate truth :)
Artificial intelligence, even if it is created, will think in completely different categories than we do. Our perception of the world is based on biological instincts: self-preservation, reproduction. And our whole psyche is, roughly speaking, a superstructure over them. Religion, God is a natural need of our psyche.
This is not typical for a machine. Moreover, for her it will mean absolutely nothing. I doubt that a sufficiently intelligent mechanism will be anything like us.
In other words, the question of whether there is a God, for a machine simply will not make sense.
There is a statement by the Dalai Lama on the topic of an artificial body and posthumous existence. He was asked whether artificial intelligence similar to human could exist, he replied that if scientists create such a shell that will meet the conditions for the embodiment of the mind in it, then such an existence will become possible. In other words, the robot in which the mind is embodied will need to be treated in the same way as other living beings. It will not be possible to kill him, lie to him, etc.
Of course not. Purely logically, without a decision about how it really is, the existence of something artificial does not refute other forms of existence of this phenomenon.
The creation of an artificial mind - it has actually been created, albeit not very complicated, but it is already a technical question. Moreover, the fact that this was possible was understood for a very long time. Systems that change their state depending on the external environment and give solutions are generally purely mechanical.
Sort items by size. It is not difficult to come up with a mechanism for this - a gutter with holes of different sizes. This is already the most primitive reason. The computer differs from such schemes not qualitatively, but quantitatively.
But to the artificial intelligence, which has self-awareness, approaches are not yet visible. The fact that this is only a very complex reason is so far postulated on the basis that it is impossible to imagine otherwise.
But even if an artificial consciousness is created, there are no fundamental religious problems here. Of course, people will be treated differently.
In Abrahamic religions, only God is immortal and immaterial, all others, including souls, are at least partially material and immortal only by virtue of their support from God. It is not strictly dogmatically decided what state the soul is in after death until the general resurrection. Why not assume, for example, that God preserves the configuration of matter that defines the soul, how do we save a computer session in "hypersleep" mode until the next turn on?
By the way, I wonder if artificial consciousness will create its own religion or join existing? )
I'm not entirely sure that mind and soul are the same thing. Moreover, during our lifetime this will definitely not happen - how the brain works is known only in the sense of mechanisms, but there are so many nerve cells that it is impossible to do this. We have a big brain, and there are all sorts of insects, snakes - that even their nervous system cannot be imitated.
If it works out, and if it turns out, in fact, that the mind and the soul are one and the same (from the point of view of theology), it proves nothing. When God expels Adam and Eve from his Garden, he says: "Now you are one of us" (after the apple). This phrase can easily be used to explain that a person can also create a soul (or God through a person). And we can say that the Lord specifically allowed this to test the strength of your faith. In general, a person is not able to prove the absence or presence of the Almighty and Almighty. Believers can also say that atheists simply believe that there is no God.
As they joked: Can the Almighty and Almighty God create a stone that he himself cannot lift. "