Under the concept of "Anorexia" there are different concepts.
Anorexia as low weight is a diagnosis in the medical reference book of diseases ICD-10. It means reduced weight.
Also in ICD-10 there is anorexia nervosa, which implies reduced weight due to mental characteristics - a conscious refusal to eat. Refusal to eat occurs either when hungry or when appetite is lost.
Anorexia nervosa is usually accompanied by increased emotional self-control and control of food (quantity and / or composition), decreased emotional sensitivity, anxiety, muscle tension , depressive thoughts, shame and guilt for their appearance, sometimes - auto-aggression and suicidal thoughts.
Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has psychological manifestations, its occurrence can be predicted by the above psychological manifestations. Therefore, some psychologists and psychotherapists diagnose anorexia nervosa only on the basis of psychological manifestations, without reference to weight.
There are several approaches to the treatment of anorexia.
Two main ones:
At the heart of the psychiatric approach, anorexia nervosa is seen as a problem and must be addressed by any means necessary. Therefore, they treat with medications that "increase the level of happiness", reduce activity (so that they do not resist when feeding), use persuasion, threats, motivational techniques, probes for artificial feeding, intravenous feeding is administered intravenously.
The psychological approach is based on Anorexia nervosa is viewed as an adaptation that the body uses when it cannot meet psychological needs such as safety, belonging, caring, trust. Therefore, experienced psychologists and eating disorder therapists treat with talking. They help:
In case of dangerous weight loss, a medical approach is definitely preferable, because with a psychological approach, a patient with anorexia may not survive.
When the weight is stabilized, at least not lower than BMI 15-16, then a psychological approach is possible that will work with the causes of the disease.
I can hardly remember myself by the time when the weight dropped to 39, not to mention the clothes from the "children's world" falling from me, but I was never diagnosed with anorexia - there really was no doctor who would take on me properly. by the time the problem became apparent (it seems that all life cycles in the body had stopped, and bruises from the contact of their own bones appeared every day), my parents were already emotionally exhausted just like I was physically, so they were not ready to drag me by the ears anymore ... By accident, it happened in my life that in this state I had to go abroad to study. it decided everything. at home, when they tried to feed me fat-free liquid yogurt without taste and smell, I was hysterical and spat on it, but when I found myself on our campus, I ended up in some other world where: a) everything was subject to a schedule, you either eat on time, and then you plow in the classroom, or you will stretch your legs, b) a very family circle of people has gathered, so drinking coffee / tea together, in the common kitchen, crawling out of their rooms, was a sacred duty and the most enjoyable part of the day I quickly fell in love, everyone was feeding something, noticing the problem, but it was unrealistic to refuse - with such care it was all done. I must have been very lucky. anorexia is what's in your head, so doctors are trying to influence the root of the problem, look for the origins. in my case, just people who happened to be nearby could find them earlier, I still think it is a miracle that I did not die in another fit of hysteria, throwing another extra crumb of food into the trash.
Oh, I know one way, the scalpel goes into the temporal bone and the frontal region is cut from below by 5-7 mm. It's called psychosurgery, do you like it? But now this is not done (not humanely) and patients with bulimia die. Or psychologists, for example, profit from their ineffectual treatment. And then they die. Even a learned morphologist for you https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uyIB-D1NVj8
Treatment of anorexia is a complex and lengthy process. If anorexia is a teenager, a person under 19 years of age, then the most effective, according to research, is the approach of family therapy, which includes the entire family system in the treatment process. For older people, individual and group psychotherapy, medications prescribed by a physician to support a malnourished body and reduce anxiety and tension, and meal planning with a nutritionist play a large role in treatment. If the BMI drops to 16 and further, then medical stabilization is often necessary with constant monitoring of the indicators of heart activity, respiration, etc. Anorexia sufferer's motivation plays a huge role in treatment - very often people with this disorder do not want to be treated and do not believe that something is wrong with them. Even with successful treatment of anorexia, relapses are possible in the future, in addition, it is not uncommon for those who survived anorexia in adolescence and adolescence to develop bulimia later.