Explanation of the answer above. Recently it became known how LSD affects the brain:
"Magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spine labeling (ASL) has shown cerebral blood flow. Functional MRI with BOLD contrast has helped to observe the content of oxidized and reduced hemoglobin by monitoring oxygen consumption - and hence the activity of certain areas of the brain.Finally, using magnetoencephalography (MEG), the electrical activity of neurons was monitored.Measurements were carried out after taking 75 μg of the drug, as well as placebo.
Significant changes under the influence of LSD were observed in the operation of the Default Mode Network (DMN) - an extensive neural network that connects a number of anatomically separated areas, is not associated with the solution of any particular problem and remains active at rest. The functions of the DMN remain unclear, but some experts suspect that her work may contain the main mystery of our brain - the emergence of the phenomenon of consciousness. The assumptions received some confirmation in the new work: the desynchronization of the DMN neurons correlated with the subjective assessments of the experimental subjects who reported “dissolution of the personality”, “loss of self” (Self Dissolution). Parallel to this, the MEG also discovered a weakening of the wave alpha rhythms of the brain, which are manifested in adults in a calm, waking state.
However, in general, the activity of neurons under the influence of LSD sharply increased and became more uniform throughout the brain, and the connections between regions which usually work more or less independently. One of the authors of the work, Robin Carhart-Harris, explained: “Normally, the brain works as a collection of independent neural networks that perform various specialized functions, such as vision, movement or hearing - or more complex ones, such as attention. However, under LSD, the separation of these networks disappears and we see a more coherent, more unified brain. "
The complication of the neural networks of the brain, the strengthening of the specialization of its areas and the strengthening of connections between them occur as they grow older and mature. Therefore, the authors compare the activity of the human brain under LSD with the work of the brain of an infant.
Strengthening connections between brain regions that usually work independently, apparently, underlies the vivid hallucinations accompanying the use of LSD. Indeed, research has shown that the primary visual cortex (V1), which is normally associated primarily with regions occupied with processing visual stimuli, begins to actively communicate with other areas that are usually not involved in this work. The degree of this activity also correlated with the reports of the test subjects about the experience of hallucinations. "
Follow the link for the full version of the article, through which you can go to the primary source in the form of the study itself.
Ecstasy (XTC, extasy) is the street name for pills containing MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine). In addition to MDMA, it may contain other substances and impurities. The main danger is the unknown content of a particular tablet, which may not contain MDMA at all, but its more poisonous substitutes, such as piperazine.
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine) is an amphetamine-type psychoactive substance that (mainly) affects the serotonin system, causing a feeling of happiness and empathy. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that tolerance grows very quickly and too frequent use leads to the disappearance of effects, except for side effects. Thus, many users were forced to independently reduce the number of MDMA doses in order to get the coveted high. There is no objective evidence to prove the neurotoxicity of MDMA, the risk of death is extremely low (1.8 cases per 100,000 users when using MDMA alone). There is also no evidence that MDMA is mentally or physically addictive. But don't forget that MDMA has a negative effect on the liver and cardiovascular system, and can also lead to short-term memory loss. Act wisely and everything will be fine!
LSD-25 (d-lysergic acid diethylamide) is a psychoactive substance from the psychedelic class. The mechanism of its effect on the human brain is still not clear. The effects consist in increased perception of colors and sounds, hallucinations (walls "breathe", complex color-saturated forms), changes in the perception of time, etc. There are no objective data proving physical or mental dependence on this substance, harm to the body, incl. h. and neurotoxicity. But LSD-25 can cause permanent mental damage, so think twice before sticking a brand under your tongue. It is best if your trip is supervised by a knowledgeable, sober person.