answer to a question from the state:
Creativity (from the English creativity) - the level of creative giftedness, the ability to be creative, which is a relatively stable characteristic of a person. For the first time in scientific research, creativity and intelligence were compared by the American psychologist J. Guilford. When creating his model of the structure of intelligence, he identified two types of thinking: convergent and divergent.
Convergent thinking (convergent thinking) is aimed at analyzing all available ways to solve a problem in order to choose the only correct one. Convergent thinking lies at the heart of intelligence, therefore it is also called "intellectual", it is associated with solving problems that have the only correct answer.
Thinking of the second type - divergent - is called "creative". Divergent thinking is thinking "going in many directions at the same time", it is aimed at generating many different options for solving a problem. It serves as a vehicle for generating original creative ideas and allows for the existence of several correct answers to the same question. Divergent thinking is at the heart of creativity.
J. Guildford connects creativity with the productivity of divergent thinking J. Guilford's definition is widely known: “Creativity is a process of divergent thinking”. Initially, he included in the structure of creativity, in addition to divergent thinking, the ability to transform, the accuracy of the solution, and other proper intellectual parameters. This postulated a positive relationship between intelligence and creativity. However, in the experiments of J. Guilford it was revealed that highly intelligent subjects may not show creative behavior when solving tests, but there are no low-intellectual creatives. Thus, divergent thinking does not reflect all the features of the creative process and does not completely coincide with it.
The study of creativity abroad is carried out mainly in two directions. One is related to the question of whether creativity depends on intelligence, and focuses on measuring cognitive processes in connection with creativity.
Another area is concerned with finding out whether a personality with its psychological characteristics is an essential aspect of creativity, and is characterized attention to personality and motivational traits.
Attempts to define creativity through cognitive variables are aimed at assessing unusual intellectual factors and cognitive styles. J. Guilford and his co-workers, since 1954, have identified 16 hypothetical intellectual abilities that characterize creativity. Among them are:
fluency of thought (the number of ideas that arise per unit of time);
flexibility of thought (the ability to switch from one idea to another);
originality (the ability to produce ideas that differ from the generally accepted views);
curiosity (sensitivity to problems in the world);
ability to develop a hypothesis, irrelevance (logical independence of the response from the stimulus);
fantastic (complete isolation of the response from reality in the presence of a logical connection between the stimulus and the response).
E.P. Following J. Guildford, Torrance describes creativity in terms of thinking, understanding creative thinking “as a process of feeling difficulties, problems, gaps in information, missing elements, skewness in something; guessing and formulating hypotheses about these shortcomings, evaluating and testing these guesses and hypotheses; the possibility of their revision and verification and, finally, the generalization of the results "
A number of researchers note the role of convergent thinking in the creative process. J. Moneta notes that competence and convergent thinking play a fundamental role in the model of scientific creativity.
The point of view of researchers on the role of competence, knowledge in creativity is that both too low and too high competence in the problem interferes with the creative process. High competence does not allow to break out of the existing stereotypes.
P. Langley and R. Jones emphasize the importance of memory in the process of creativity. The availability of information allows you to create unobvious associations and come to original solutions to the problem.
Since creativity is the opposite of intelligence as the ability to adapt universally precisely according to this criterion, in practice there is an effect of the inability of creatives to solve simple intellectual problems.
The most in-depth study of the relationship between creativity and intelligence was conducted by E.L. Grigorenko. She managed to reveal that the number of hypotheses generated by an individual when solving a complex mental problem correlates with creativity according to the method of E.P. Torrens, and the correctness of the decision positively correlates with the level of general intelligence according to D. Veksler. Consequently, creativity and general intelligence are abilities that determine the process of solving a mental problem, but play a different role at different stages.
The results of an empirical study of creativity by V.K. Kozlenko, confirming that such components of creativity as fluency, flexibility and originality prevail in the thinking of creative individuals.
There is a point of view according to which creative achievements are associated with neuroses and pathologies of the brain and nervous system. So, L. Cronbach is inclined to see the reason for creativity in poor regulation of the thought process, in the inability to master the qualitative “sifting” of ideas.
There is no single point of view regarding the motivational characteristics of creativity. According to one point of view, a creative individual is trying to realize himself in the best way, to match his capabilities as much as possible, to perform new, unusual activities for him,thread new ways of doing things. According to another point of view, the motivation of creative abilities is based on the desire to take risks, to test the limit of one's capabilities.
In some works, the hypothesis of a high correlation between IQ and creativity indicators was confirmed, in others, the opposite results were obtained. The reasons for this discrepancy were partly seen in the undeveloped diagnosis of creativity, as a result of which in a number of cases there were no significant correlations between different indicators of this property.
However, the main reason was the differences in the samples on which the studies were conducted. In some studies, individuals with an IQ above the norm participated, in others with an IQ corresponding to the norm, in the third, the samples were mixed with a large scatter of indicators of intelligence tests. After analyzing the results of the studies carried out taking into account this circumstance, psychologists came to the following conclusion: the relationship between the indicators of intelligence and creativity tests exists, but it is not linear, but more complex. It can be described as follows. If the IQ is average or above average, then it is linearly related to creativity - the higher the IQ, the greater the indicator of creativity. But if the indicator of the intelligence test goes beyond the upper limit of the norm, it loses its relationship with creativity.
This fact means that for the manifestations of creativity, a sufficiently high (above normal) level of mental development is needed. If this level is reached, that is, the individual has a sufficiently large amount of knowledge and formed logical thinking, then its further increase becomes indifferent for the formation of creativity. However, a very high level of intelligence is often accompanied by a decrease in creativity, which is most likely due to the specific orientation of the individual - to learning, to recognizing new information, its assimilation, systematization, analysis, and critical assessment. Such an orientation towards criticism and logic in judgments, as many believe, can impede the generation of new ideas.
To assess the ability to create, the terms "lightness", "flexibility", "originality" are often used as criteria. These personality traits are manifested when performing special tasks. Ease is revealed by the speed of completing tasks (by the number of tasks solved in the allotted time). Flexibility is measured by the number of switches from one class of objects to others. Originality - according to the frequency of this response in a homogeneous group of subjects (the original ones usually include answers that make up no more than 2% of the same answers given by the rest, "non-original" subjects).
Development of creativity is unthinkable without improving a number of psychological terms inherent in any gifted person (according to A. Luke). This:
Vigilance in search of problems as a quality of thinking, i.e. the ability to discover the unusual among familiar phenomena.
Ability to collapse mental operations in a long chain of reasoning andreplace them with one generic operation.
Possession of generalizing strategies through the techniques of transferring the experience of solving one problem to solving another ("to create, you have to think about, lateral thinking").
Integral perception. Often, organizational abilities are drowned in the inability to see the situation in its integrity and the subsequent actions of the leader, similar to patching up the "trishkin's caftan".
Skills of remote association of concepts of different content. This quality provides people with humor the opportunity to compose anecdotes, where the funny is manifested precisely in the factor of “semantic distance” between concepts. In a person's memory, words are grouped into "clusters", into associative blanks, and then they are effectively used in the processes of thinking. Such associative networks provide quick access to relevant information stored in a person's memory.
Flexibility of thinking as the ability to move from one class of phenomena to another, which does not substantially coincide in content with the first (the individual has no mental “customs boundaries” between phenomena).
The severity of the evaluation skills of solution options before they are objectively checked.
Ease of generating ideas ("many and different: good and not so"). It is important here to use various channels of information processing to create images of these ideas. For this, a person must know his leading channel of perception and processing of information and develop the efficiency of other channels. One cannot do without the development of such mental cognitive processes as representation and imagination. Fluency skills will also play a very positive role. After all, any idea must be translated into a verbal code. This is necessary not only for its publication, but also for critical analysis, for finding inaccuracies, inaccuracies, or simply errors.
Summing up the above, we note that a special type of intellectual ability called creativity is currently being widely studied by Anglo-American psychologists. The data obtained in their research allows us to state the following:
there is a connection between creativity and the creative achievements of a person, but the essence of this property has not yet been fully clarified;
it is impossible to separate with complete confidence creativity from intelligence in the traditional sense;
No reliable ways to measure creativity have been found yet.
I'm not an expert, but I think, since "all processes of higher nervous activity are reflexes," as Pavlov said, everything is the same here.
I'm talking about complex conditioned reflexes. With the participation of the cerebral cortex and the limbic system, which is responsible for the emotional sphere of life.
Information passes to and from the brain through analyzers, these are such complexes of receptors, nerve fibers and nuclei. An analyzer ... it basically analyzes. It perceives (through receptors), processes (information analysis), and produces the result (information synthesis).
Information about all the details, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of objects in the surrounding space, their colors, smells, sounds they emit, perceived by receptors. Receptors convert the energy of an irritant (for example, photons - an irritant for the rods and cones of the retina) into the energy of a nerve impulse, that is, they recode it. In this form, the information rises to the cortical areas of the brain along the ascending sections of the corresponding analyzers.
Let's say that the visual analyzer, I would describe it more colorful, with warmth and smells, but for an example with a joke, the visual one is enough. I turn my head and see something. The information from the eye went into the visual cortex and now I see two objects, so far I can only name their color, brightness, saturation.
New neurons from neighboring regions of the brain, from associative fields are included in the reflex chain, which allows to use higher functions of analysis and synthesis, such as recognition of objects and discrimination of images. Now I understand that that cream-colored mass over there is nothing more than an ordinary pouf. But that second, pale, thin, with rounded body proportions and long dark hair is a female person. Higher cognitive functions are included. The neurons of the limbic system are connected and feelings and emotions wake up, now I know what laughter is, what can cause it and what will happen when I joke, the hippocampus also catches at the same time and I remember 2 years of life with this person, who is she, why is she here, I remember all my life experience, and of course I remember how to joke with this particular person right now in this particular situation. New cortical structures are switched on, and now everything is assembled, I go over the scenarios after my joke, I think what will happen if ... however, the impulse has already reached the effector organ - my musculoskeletal system. And all this way in a split second. I push the chair aside until she sees. And when he tries to sit down, crying out in surprise, falls into my arms and bursts into laughter and I break into a smile, we sit on the unicorn and gallop into the sunset. The little girl is alive and well and cheerful. Everyone is happy. World-rainbow-pies-strong tea.
And this is a reflex aftereffect. Nerve impulses continue to involve new cortical areas in reflex chains, forcing me to come up with new scenarios and depriving me of sleep.