I am a chess player with 30 years of experience, analytics is just a bolt in the game, knowledge comes first here! This is how to learn Chinese, strategy, tactics, luck
We have read all the answers written here before us to the difficult question asked here.
And we must pay tribute to each answer. Since in a given situation, each answer deserves attention and has a place to be.
However, you can add the following.
It is generally accepted in society that the main difference between a strong master (say with rating 2500 and above) from a club chess player, consists in the fact that the master calculates options deeper and more, builds a calculation tree better, has more experience than a club chess player. All this is so and all of this is correct. But still, this is not the main difference. A strong master, if a position does not have an obvious solution, after its instant assessment, will not waste his time on calculating options, but will proceed to choosing from the arsenal of typical positions and situations in his head - one or two that are most optimal and acceptable for position in a given situation, with a given time control, with a given opponent - the position (s) to which you need to come. In other words, a strong master already knows where to move and where to come. His brain will only have to decide how to do it. The club player will do everything the other way around - after evaluating the position, he will start counting options, that is, doing what everyone has always taught him. That's the whole difference. Between the strong and the weak. To be short ... and not go into details.
This is actually what modern chess schools teach.
Edgar Poe in Murder on the Rue Morgue stunningly voiced the philosophy of chess through his hero. Pieces have their own value and strength, and the chess player has a large number of options for the development of the game, even making mistakes somewhere. Probably, excellent memory, strategic thinking, speed of decision-making, will to win are the hallmarks of such a person. But, Edgar Poe, brilliantly juxtaposed chess with checkers, giving checkers priority in complexity as a game. Why? Read it - you won't regret it.
The brain works analytically. Anyone who says that a chess player, they say, can calculate everything several moves ahead, is delusional. It is impossible to do this in a game where your opponent has a move after yours. But the chess player constantly analyzes everything. The best chess players are the best analysts of the current situation on the board, and, of course, people who are able to make the most correct decision from the diversity that exists
Read the work of Nabokov "Luzhin's Defense". It describes the world of a chess player, I don't know how true the description is, but it's interesting to read ...