Memory in particular and cognitive ability in general improves with a lot of study. But with one caveat - within the framework of this training it should be "difficult". Training should not take place in an automatic mode, there should be conditions under which you have to concentrate on the task in order to solve it (this is the so-called Deliberate practice). Let's say you don't become a good guitarist if you play the same etude for ten years (no matter how difficult it is). As soon as you can play it automatically without thinking about each next note, development will stop.
It is better to remember what you have read, if there is an opportunity to tell the learned information aloud to someone. Yes, at least to yourself in front of the mirror: you tell, listen, think over, realize, if you do not understand something - you ask a question, explain, etc. .
Memory does not improve and does not exercise) It is pretty constant. Long-term memory in a healthy person is practically infinite, no one has yet measured it, and this is hardly possible. short-term memory is capable of simultaneously holding 7 + - 2 units of information, that is, approximately 5-9. And it strongly depends on a person's condition, for example, fatigue. And this volume is approximately the same for all people. And with age, memory only deteriorates ...
However, it is noticeable that if a person studies a lot and persistently, he begins to memorize material faster and easier, this is a fact. What's the matter here? the matter is in the methods of information processing, in the process of thinking associated with memory. However, Atkinson included information processing in memory itself. Memory and thinking are closely related, to unite or separate them is a matter of theoretical explanation.
So, a healthy person does not remember everything literally. Literal, or rote memorization prevails in our early childhood (it has been noticed that a child can memorize large chunks of poems almost the first time, etc.) and then gradually this memory gives way to another type - meaningful memory. When we memorize the material in a meaningful way, we process it: we highlight the main thing, classify, add images, we have certain associations. So the material is remembered easier and stronger. If we study a lot, we train this part. For example, if we are well acquainted with the anatomy of a hedgehog (have already learned it), then we will just as easily learn the anatomy of another animal - I just fit the differences into the already existing matrix of meanings. A short mental summary is a good reminder, people often have a well-developed visual memory (mechanical), and therefore images and visual associations are good at helping to memorize material.
See what they write about mnemonics and competitions of “memorizing” - yes, they learn from the first time in the order of competition huge pieces of material, but not mechanically, but based on a certain system of meanings and associative prompts.
So memory is not trainable, but its auxiliary means is a way of storing information into good the internal directory is fine. However, in everyday speech we call these exercises "memory training".
Definitely. Especially if you reinforce it with special exercises and diet. Just read about this, it's quite interesting. It's like in order to build muscle, you need not only to swing, but also to eat right and generally lead a healthy lifestyle (not always, but approximately so).