Hormonal balance affects the direction of thoughts, as well as the ability to think rationally (sorry for the tautology). And in general, on the behavior of any individual.
Thinking is like a culinary dish. Unsalted, peppered - and not the same taste.
In fact, you can write a hefty canvas here about how hormones affect behavior, thoughts and feelings. But I believe that TheQuestion format is more in short and not tiring answers, so I'll try to keep it short.
In fact, hormones are responsible for all our feelings, behaviors and thoughts. Hormones even made you ask this question on the website.
For example, hormones make us think about the person to whom we show sympathy or feel sad about our failure. Feeling lustful? These are sex hormones. Feeling annoyed? This is cortisol. Are you acting like a dominant male? This is testosterone.
Needless to say that in different emotional states a person thinks in completely different ways. With high cortisol levels and low serotonin levels, you will be irritable and depressed. And yet they know that in such states the train of thought is pessimistic. If the level of cortisol is low and testosterone is high, then you will feel confident and comfortable, and accordingly, you will have thoughts of a confident person who wants to achieve more than he has.
Well, this is a very simplified explanation. There are dozens of hormones that affect our behavior and thoughts, more than one book has been written about this, and it is simply impossible to fit all this into one answer.
Of course. Indirectly: through a change in the general emotional background.
The question is, how accurately, "in grams"; but the increase in androgens significantly increases the degree of aggressiveness, oxytocin - tender love. A decrease in the level of estrogen in the menopause can lead to irritability, tearfulness, and replacement therapy with non-proliferative estrogens (that is, those that do not affect tissue growth, not those in contraceptives) will bring the mood to the normal rate for a woman ...