Indeed, panic attacks and derealization / depersonalization go hand in hand. During a panic attack, derealization is inevitable - the situation itself seems unreal, and thoughts are confused. At the same time, in my case, after the first PA in my life passed, the feeling of unreality of what was happening, unfortunately, remained. Sometimes even speech does not seem to be my own - the mouth speaks itself some thoughts that I did not seem to think. Sometimes it's scary. More precisely, it is actually scary to lose complete control over yourself and seriously start talking or doing something against your will.
Of course there is! Derealization is a perception disorder. It can be both an independent syndrome - according to ICD-10, depersonalization-derealization syndrome (non-psychotic disorder of the neurotic level), and be included in the symptom complex of other disorders of varying severity - chronic fatigue, panic disorder, various types of depression, schizophrenia.
At the subjective level, this disorder is experienced as a feeling of separation / remoteness from the world, sensitivity to surrounding events and reality decreases, they seem to be remote, flat, uninteresting, the sense of time changes, memory disorders may be present.
At the physiological level, this condition is caused by a decrease in the production of important neurotransmitters in the brain (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, etc.) and activation of the opiate system.
There is a theory that that such a state arises in the case of prolonged suppression or the impossibility of achieving / realizing one's own conscious or unconscious desires. In such a case, it will be quite enough to undergo a course of depth-oriented psychotherapy (various schools of psychoanalysis).
If you suspect depersonalization in yourself, you need to consult a qualified specialist - a neurologist, clinical psychologist, general psychiatrist or psychiatrist-psychotherapist ... If a similar symptom is associated with a neurotic disorder, then, most likely, one or another type of psychotherapy + supportive drug therapy will be needed, depending on the classification of the disorder, in the case of more severe disorders, serious drug therapy may be required.
I do not know why they write here about derealization as about short attacks resembling PA, it can be a permanent state, which worsens from time to time, or vice versa. And this does not require the presence of an irritant.
I would describe derealization as a kind of gap between you and the world. You seem to be looking at him from the side, not necessarily in dull colors. Honestly, I don't understand why it is believed that apathy / depression is necessarily accompanied by derealization - the very name of such a symptom (namely a symptom, because it is not a separate psychotic disorder) seems to speak for itself - this is alienation from reality, and not from emotions.
Based on personal feelings: the state is very similar to that experienced by people under dissociatives - understanding of such things as ego, time, dimensions disappears, you are simultaneously one with the whole world and at the same time fenced off from it.
Perhaps it really brings some inconvenience to some, but if you know how to live calmly with it, then everything is ok and it should be taken as a feature of perception, and not some kind of deviation from the norm.
Derealization is a defense mechanism of our brain. When the level of stress exceeds the limits, the brain dulls the sense of reality, as if "removing" us from the source of stress. I myself live with it, the most unpleasant thing is that everything becomes unreal, everything is not true, even if it is only and in my head. I know what is treated with medicines and a psychologist.
I totally agree with the previous answer. Derealization is an unpleasant thing. But I would like to add about my specific case, when derealization manifests itself not so much in depression as in a panic attack. Roughly speaking, the world suddenly, in a split second, begins to seem unreal, the heart begins to pound madly and obsessive thoughts creep in: "This is not true, this does not exist, the whole world is one big meaningless black hole. And I myself am a black hole." And the world really seems to be meaningless, huge and unreal. It’s as if the whole Universe is being pulled into one point in your head and only there everything happens. Eerie sensations.
Usually my attack lasts about 2-3 minutes. During this time, I go through the stages from "I don't want to die" to "if only this is all over as soon as possible, it is better to throw out the window." The most important thing in moments of panic is not to be alone with yourself and your thoughts, because the brain is a tricky thing and you just can't calm it down. The 7/11 breathing principle is said to help. That is, 7 seconds of inhalation and 11 seconds of exhalation. But as anyone. Personally, only radical means help me to recover - ammonia or a slap in the face.
In general, it is better, of course, not to fall into a state of derealization. As soon as I feel that panic is coming, I start to frantically engage in any distracting activity - flipping through the VK feed, washing dishes, talking to someone, in general, doing whatever so that the brain calms down and understands that everything is in order, the world is real and me - I exist.
I will not go into scientific facts that I do not know well, I will just try to remember my feelings.
In general, such a thing can happen if you accidentally fall into depression, apathy, fixated on physical sensations, on memories. It manifests itself especially clearly if you live in the past, you understand that there is no future yet, and the present rests on thousandths of a second. At such a moment, the consciousness narrows to one single point in front of the eyes, and the whole world around seems suspiciously flat. It's like an optical illusion - you turned your consciousness in one direction, thinking positively and saw the 3D world, turned to the dark side of life and the three-dimensional space abruptly disappears and you cease to feel like a real participant in life. To be honest, it's hard to describe when this kind of nonsense stopped happening.
P. S. Maybe this is not derealization, but I have not met more suitable terms for this phenomenon.
P. PS Come out of this filthy state (: