Of course, yes. The brain is made up of neurons and synapses that start a new life when people learn or remember something. If you have a melody in your head, then your brain has changed, which means that its further work will be somewhat different. This is true not only for music, but also for movies and lyrics. It is not for nothing that good journalism faculties are forced to memorize pages from the classics.
Yes. Research into the impact of music on humans began after World War II. In the States, tuberculosis patients were allowed to listen to classical music and positive changes were observed in their condition. More details about this are written in Osipova's textbook on psychocorrection
Very much indeed. Different music carries a different charge of energy. If, for example, listen to the classics, then you will calm down, listen to heavy rock - you will get a charge of energy (which everyone releases in their own way), and so on. And this already makes its own amendments to the behavior (energetic / calm / neither this nor that). But that's not all. Many fans are trying to be like their idols, and this is already bearing consequences. And if after listening to the classics you will learn to play the piano and read philosophical books (you give stereotypes), then after listening to metal you will have a desire to take the drums and beat them with such foolishness that the neighbors will call the police (catch a drug addict !!!).
Text also affects. Some songs have lyrics like "I don't need anyone, everyone threw me", such people either commit suicide or join groups of whiners, other songs have lyrics like "boys rule the world, they drink and drink and humiliate skins", here the consequences are visible so. You can sort out other situations, but the essence will not change:
Music gives us mood (charge) and thoughts (text).
Yes, it can. Especially if you not only listen to it, but also perform it yourself. Learning new compositions, mastering new instruments forms many neural connections in the brain, which, of course, develops and helps the brain not to age longer.
Many factors influence human development, and one of them is music. There were some social experiments in Europe: people were given a genre of music and they listened to this genre for a week. At the end of the experiment, participants were identified with new habits and behavior changes. For example, the aggressiveness of the listeners of rap increased, and the listeners of the classics began to have a better perception of the world. Music is like society or the environment, strongly influences him and his perception of the world.